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Dr Samuel Ayele Bekalo (MEd, PhD)

Freelance Horn of Africa advisor/consultant.  Produced over 100 country reports (on Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, The Sudan) for various organisations and legal firms.

Dr Samuel Ayele Bekalo (MEd, PhD)
Freelance Horn of Africa Countries Advisor / Consultant

Horn/East Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan); UK/Europe

Languages: Fluent - English & Amharic, Basic – Tigrinya, Little – Arabic

Professional Services include:

• Countries Situations: Consultancy/Analytical Research/Reports Compilation (socio-culture, political-economy, conflict resolution, training provisions)

• Asylum & Immigration/Migration Matters

• Educational Development (primary to tertiary, teacher education, emergency/refugee education)

• Families & Minority Ethnic Groups (representation and advocacy, integration promotion, capacity building)

• Language Services: Amharic - English (documents authentication, translation, interpretation)

Past & Present Clients Include:

• Universities (Leeds & Oxford - UK, Hawsaa & Addis Ababa – Ethiopia, Former Asmara – Eritrea, Hargeisa & Borama, Somaliland)

• Organizations (DFID - UK, The British Council – UK & Ethiopia, UNICEF – OLS, Kenya & Sudan, AET - Somalia & Somaliland, The Windle International - UK, Kenya, Somalia & Sudan)

• Solicitors/Legal firms worldwide (UK, Europe, North Atlantic, Africa)

• Law Enforcement Bodies (Home Office/Border Control, Courts, Police Forces)

Qualification / Education (PhD, MEd):


Degree(s) or Diploma(s) obtained:

Leeds University, UK

PhD (Development Education)

Leeds University, UK

MEd (Masters in Science Education)

Leeds University, UK

Post-graduate / Advanced Diploma

(Development Education)

Kotebe Teacher Education University, Ethiopia Education




Degree(s) or Diploma(s) obtained:

NaCTSO [National Counter Terrorism Office], UK (2020)

Certificate of Completion

NaCTSO/ACT E-Learning

Leeds University, UK (1998 - 2007)

Successful completion of higher education

accredited Professional Development Courses in:

Project Development and Management,

Research Development, Personnel Management, Communication,

Writing for Publications.

Institute of Linguistic (IoL / IND) & Refugee Migrant Justice, UK (2003-2005)

Certificates of Accreditation

Specialist Amharic Language Training in Interpreting,

Translating, Assessment & Document Authentication

Membership of professional bodies:

• Member: AUT (Association of University Teachers) & LUCAS (Leeds University Centre for African Studies), UK

• Associate Member: The UK Academy of Experts

• Examiner & Member: IoL (Institute of Linguist) UK

• Member: The Windle International & AET (UK / Kenya / Somalia / Sudan / Ethiopia)

• Member: Development Forum (MEDREK), Ethiopia


Summary of Professional Work Experience

Date from - Date to





June 2007 - Present

(UK / Europe, North Atlantic/ East / Horn of Africa)

Various Development Organizations, Educational & Language Institutions, Solicitors, Law Enforcement Bodies

Freelance Horn of Africa Countries Advisor/ Consultant
Research Fellow

- Research & Consultancy Work covering various areas (e.g. asylum &
migration, education, socio-cultural and political situations, family and
community, capacity building).
- As an accredited Amharic Linguist, provision of such professional
services as document translation and authentication, for the above
mentioned institutions and IoL (Institute of Linguistic, UK).

July 2003 -June 2007

Leeds, UK

LEEC (Leeds Ethiopian-Eritrean Communities) & RCOs (Refugee Community Organizations)

Founder and Development Projects Advisor / Manager

- Representation & Capacity building work of LEEC & RCOs of East/
Horn of Africa origins.
- Research & Training Provisions.
- Fund raising.

Sept. 1998 –July 2007

UK (Leeds)
Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, The Sudan)

The University of Leeds
International School of Education &
Development Studies
Leeds , UK

International Link Project Manager & Research and Development Fellow.

•  Managing collaborative project work between institutions, donors and
local authorities between Leeds University School of Education (LUSE, UK) with African Educational Trust, UNICEF - OLS Sudan, Somaliland and South Sudan Authorities and Hawassa Teacher University College (Ethiopia)
• Research and Development, Teaching / Lecturing

July 1988 – Aug. 1992

Khartoum (Sudan)

The Nile Society for Refugee,
Khartoum Sudan
American School, Khartoum Sudan

Assistant Director
Assistant Teacher

- Establishment of income generating and education centers for displaced
refugees in collaboration with the UN and other humanitarian organizations.
- Conflict resolution and peace building work amongst communities from
war-torn countries (e.g. Ethiopia and Eritrea, North & South Sudan,
Somalia), through consultation and collaboration with key institutions (e.g.
Faith groups, established community organizations, UN/UNHCR, host
country authorities).
- Teaching

Voluntary / Charity Work

2014 - 2019: Board of Directors of Trustees, The Windle International Trust, Oxford (UK)

2016 - 2019: School Governor, Abbey Grange Academy, Ireland Wood Primary School, Leeds - UK

2010 - 2013: Local OXFAM Group Activist and Events Contributor, Leeds (UK)

Additional Information about Country Visits / First-Hand Experience

Ethiopia - 1980 – 2021: Recent Country Field Research Visits to Oromia, SNNPR, Amhara and Central Regions (1998 -1999, 2000, 2002, 2007, 2014, July-September 2015, July -August 2017, September-October 2019).

Eritrea - 1980 & 1982 (when Eritrea was still part of Ethiopia), visited Asmara (now the capital city of Eritrea) and Assab (the sea port situated in Southern Read Sea).

1988 (during the Eritrea independence struggle and when I was involved Abesha refugee community support network in the Sudan), paid a visit to western low land of Eritrea (e.g. Afabet & Keren surroundings) then controlled by the EPLF (Eritrean People Liberation Front) .

1996, 2010 (after independence) re-visited Asmara and Massawa (the other sea port situated in the Northern Read Sea).

2000 -2003 (as program leader of North-South Higher Education Institutions Link program at Leeds University) I had an opportunity to work with ex-combatant Eritrean educators and local leaders and undertook experience sharing country exchange visits. Due to the unfortunate country situation, most of the patriotic and enthusiastic Eritreans colleagues I used to work with were forced to fled from their country in recent years, some of whom ending up in the UK and elsewhere as refugees.

Since 2000, I maintain close networks with and represent Habesha (i.e. Eritrean & Ethiopian) and other East African (e.g. Somalia, Sudan) communities in various capacities (e.g. consultancy, capacity building, language retention and promotion, family relation and socio-cultural integration) as well with African scholars.

Kenya - 1992 - 1995 & 2001 -2014: Frequent field research work in Nairobi and refugee camps across the country,

Somalia (Somaliland, Puntland, Southern Somalia) - 1992 - 1995 & 2001 -2001, 2017, 2019: Frequent field research work in North-West and Southern Somalia

Sudan (North & New / South Sudan) - 1985-1991, 1993 - 1995, 2003, 2017, 2019: Frequent field research work in Central Region (Khartoum, Medene), Eastern & Southern regions (e.g. Kassla, Gedarif, Demazin, Kurmuk, Gizen, Juba, Yambio, Rumbeck)

Languages Proficiency and Exposures Includes: - Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromiffa, Somali, Kiswahili and Arabic


Working Papers

Bekalo, S.A 2000 - 2021 Over 300 Country Reports on Horn (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, The Sudan) Compiled for Various Organizations and Legal Firms.

Bekalo, S.A. 2000 - 2016 Over 300 Country Reports on Horn (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, The Sudan) Compiled for Various Organizations and Legal Firms.

New / Recent Publications

Bekalo S A, 13 May 2021. Refugees smuggling and trafficking: the case of East and Horn of Africa. Leeds University, LUCAS Bulleting No. 82, Running Issue 2021.

Bekalo S A, 21 February 2021. Ethiopia must learn quick lessons from the Tigray to avoid further regional crisis. London University LSE Centre for Africa Studies Publication.

Bekalo S A, 2 February 2021. A Post-TPLF Tigray and the Tigrayan Diaspora. Ethiopia Insight Publication).

Bekalo S A [Part II (of II) ,19 April 2015]. Ethiopia: After EPRDF, Who is ready to take over power? Ethiopia Nazret. Com Publication.

Bekalo S A [Part I (of II) 24 March 2015]. Ethiopia: After EPRDF, Who is ready to take over power? Ethiopia Nazret. Com Publication.

Bekalo S A (19 February 2015). A Prospective Reflection: Is Arab-Style 'Revolution' No Longer Looming in the Nile Basin African Countries? Ethiopian Review. Ethio Media Publication.

Bekalo S A (Issue No. 48, December 2014). African Refugees and the Responses of Churches to Displacement in the UK. Forced Migration Review [FMR], Oxford University Press.

Bekalo S A (Issue No. 41, December 2012). East African Refugees Adapting to Life in the UK. Forced Migration Review, Oxford University Press, December 2012).

Other Sample Publications

Bekalo, S.A. (2007). Exploring the Socio-Cultural and Economic Transformation of the Habesha Communities in Diaspora: traditional vs. new cultural heritage. Part I & II. LEC – UK, October 2007.

Bekalo, S.A. (2004). Book Review. Africa in the New Millennium: challenges and prospects. African studies Bulletin. No. 66 (2004). Leeds University Centre for African studies (LUCAS) Publications.

Bekalo, S.A. (2003) Society and Culture: Field Research Visit to Somalia and Sudan. The International Education News Letter, Leeds University.

Bekalo, S.A. (2003). The Development of Basic Education in Post-conflict Somalia. International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 23 (2003).

Bekalo, S.A. and C Bangay (2002). Towards Effective Environmental Education in developing countries: problems and prospects in responding to the environment-poverty challenge. International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 12 (2002).

Bekalo, S.A. (1999). Secondary pre-service teacher education in Ethiopia: its impact on teachers' competence and confidence to teach practical work in science (1999). International Journal of Science Education, Vol. 21, No. 12 (1999).

Bekalo, S.A. (2000). Practical activity in Ethiopian secondary physical sciences: implications for policy and practice of the match between the intended and implemented curriculum (2000). Research Papers in Education, Vol. 75, No. 2 (2000).

Fluent: English, Amharic. Basic: Tigrinya, Arabic
[Private to EIN members]
[Private to EIN members]